children

Combination of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis in children: a case report and the results of a multicenter study

Objective. To study risk factors, etiology, clinical signs and treatment outcomes of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis combination (IAM) in children. Materials and Methods. A retrospective review of Saint-Petersburg register (1998–2021) of patients with IA was done and children with IAM were included. EORTC/MSGERG 2019 criteria were used for diagnosing and treatment results evaluation of invasive mycosis. We presented a clinical case of IAM in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapse.

Genetic characteristics of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid of children

Objective. To assess antimicrobial susceptibility, presence of resistance genes and determine the phenotypic groups of K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid of children with nosocomial infections in intensive care units from 2014 to 2020. Materials and Methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were determined using the serial broth microdilution method. The identification of genes encoding the production of carbapenemases was carried out using hybridization fluorescence detection.

Ceftazidimeavibactam use in children and adolescents

The increasing number of infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in children is a serious problem all over the world. Ceftazidim-avibactam is a promising antimicrobial drug recently approved in Russia for use in pediatric …

Mucormycosis in children with hematological malignancies: results of a single-center study

Objective. To assess the incidence rate, risk factors and treatment outcomes of mucormycosis in children with hematological malignancies in the large tertiary hematology/oncology center. Materials and Methods. A total of 16 children (9 males/7 females) with mucormycosis were enrolled in a single-center, retrospective study over the period of 2012–2018. All patients had an underlying diagnosis of acute leukemia. Mucormycosis was diagnosed at the different timepoints after chemotherapy (CT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 15 cases and before CT in 1 case.

Clinical and epidemiological features of infections caused by HHV-6A and HHV-6B

Objective. To determine the detection rates of HHV-6A and HHV-6B compared to other herpes viruses in children of different age groups. Materials and Methods. A total of 128 patients with symptoms of respiratory viral infections (RVI) aged from 1 to 16 years and 101 otherwise healthy children. A comprehensive examination of the patients, including ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence assay, rapid culture method, PCR, and determination of nucleotide sequences of HHV-6 was performed.

Antimicrobial susceptibility and association with serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in children with acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in Belarus

Objective. To study antibiotic resistance and its association with serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized children with community-acquired ENT infections in Belarus during 2013-2016 and to analyze a potential for the use of different antibiotic classes in the treatment of those infections. Materials and Methods. A total of 115 strains isolated from children with acute otitis media and 18 strains isolated from children with acute rhinosinusitis were tested. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by a broth microdilution method.

Changes in antimicrobial resistance in clinical pediatric isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in Middle Ural area

Objective. To reveal the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis clinical pediatric isolates in Yekaterinburg and Sverdlovsk region during 2013-2015. Materials and Methods. In total 231 H. influenzae, 289 S. pneumoniae, and 266 M. catarrhalis isolates were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed partially by disc-diffusion method and partially by automated method, depending on the local practice; β-lacamase production was detected by the nitrocefin disc test.

Clinical case of acute epididymitis in an infant with cytomegalovirus infection

A clinical case of acute epididymitis in a 5-month male infant is presented. Taking into account the occurrence of epididymitis in infancy, an intra-operative biopsy sample was tested for multiple viral pathogens by real-time polymerase chain …

Penicillin/Beta-lactamase Inhibitor Combinations in the Treatment of Bacterial Respiratory Tract Infections in Children

Over the several decades, medical and pharmaceutical science has been trying to solve the problem of antimicrobial therapy inefficiency due to rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance. One of the antimicrobial agents being capable to overcome the …

Antimicorbial Susceptibility, Clonal and Serotype Diversity of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Children with Acute Otitis Media in Moscow

Objective. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading cause of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Hereby, we describe antibiotic susceptibility, clonality, and serotype distribution of pneumococci isolated from the middle ear fluid (MEF) in children with AOM. Materials and Methods. MEF specimens from children ≤5 years of age with AOM were collected in 4 pediatric hospitals in Moscow in 2011–2013. Isolation and identification of pneumococcus was performed using standard microbiological procedures.