children

Mucormycosis in children with hematological malignancies: results of a single-center study

Objective. To assess the incidence rate, risk factors and treatment outcomes of mucormycosis in children with hematological malignancies in the large tertiary hematology/oncology center. Materials and Methods. A total of 16 children (9 males/7 females) with mucormycosis were enrolled in a single-center, retrospective study over the period of 2012–2018. All patients had an underlying diagnosis of acute leukemia. Mucormycosis was diagnosed at the different timepoints after chemotherapy (CT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 15 cases and before CT in 1 case.

Clinical and epidemiological features of infections caused by HHV-6A and HHV-6B

Objective. To determine the detection rates of HHV-6A and HHV-6B compared to other herpes viruses in children of different age groups. Materials and Methods. A total of 128 patients with symptoms of respiratory viral infections (RVI) aged from 1 to 16 years and 101 otherwise healthy children. A comprehensive examination of the patients, including ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence assay, rapid culture method, PCR, and determination of nucleotide sequences of HHV-6 was performed.

Antimicrobial susceptibility and association with serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in children with acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in Belarus

Objective. To study antibiotic resistance and its association with serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized children with community-acquired ENT infections in Belarus during 2013-2016 and to analyze a potential for the use of different antibiotic classes in the treatment of those infections. Materials and Methods. A total of 115 strains isolated from children with acute otitis media and 18 strains isolated from children with acute rhinosinusitis were tested. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by a broth microdilution method.

Changes in antimicrobial resistance in clinical pediatric isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in Middle Ural area

Objective. To reveal the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis clinical pediatric isolates in Yekaterinburg and Sverdlovsk region during 2013-2015. Materials and Methods. In total 231 H. influenzae, 289 S. pneumoniae, and 266 M. catarrhalis isolates were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed partially by disc-diffusion method and partially by automated method, depending on the local practice; β-lacamase production was detected by the nitrocefin disc test.

Clinical case of acute epididymitis in an infant with cytomegalovirus infection

A clinical case of acute epididymitis in a 5-month male infant is presented. Taking into account the occurrence of epididymitis in infancy, an intra-operative biopsy sample was tested for multiple viral pathogens by real-time polymerase chain …

Penicillin/Beta-lactamase Inhibitor Combinations in the Treatment of Bacterial Respiratory Tract Infections in Children

Over the several decades, medical and pharmaceutical science has been trying to solve the problem of antimicrobial therapy inefficiency due to rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance. One of the antimicrobial agents being capable to overcome the …

Antimicorbial Susceptibility, Clonal and Serotype Diversity of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Children with Acute Otitis Media in Moscow

Objective. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading cause of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Hereby, we describe antibiotic susceptibility, clonality, and serotype distribution of pneumococci isolated from the middle ear fluid (MEF) in children with AOM. Materials and Methods. MEF specimens from children ≤5 years of age with AOM were collected in 4 pediatric hospitals in Moscow in 2011–2013. Isolation and identification of pneumococcus was performed using standard microbiological procedures.

Paediatricians Approach to Prescribing of Systemic Antimicrobials in Outpatient Children with Upper Respiratory Tract and ENT Infections: Data from Multicenter Survey

Objective. Objectives. The study aimed to assess paediatricians knowledge of etiology and approach to systemic antimicrobials (АМ) use in outpatient children with acute respiratory tract infections. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire survey of primary care paediatricians from 17 cities of Russian Federation was performed in 2011–2013 in compliance with the unified methodology. Results. A total of 701 paediatricians (mean age 46,3±10,7, 61,5% with work experience >15 years) took part in the survey.

Comparative Efficacy of Azithromycin and Cefixime in the Treatment of Acute Infectious Invasive Diarrhea in Children

This paper describes a multicenter, randomized study to compare clinical and microbiological efficacy, and safety of azithromycin (Sumamed®, Teva) and cefixime (Suprax®, Gedeon-Richter) in the treatment of acute infectious invasive diarrhea in …

Analysis of Antibiotic Usage in Children Living in Orphanages During the 2003–2004 and 2009–2010

Analysis of antibiotic usage in children living in orphanages was performed during two time-periods: 2003–2004 and 2009–2010 with the aim to reveal key problems of antibiotic usage in this population, and to develop measures for improvement. It was …