Current Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Russian Federation

Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2016; 18(4):282-290

Journal article


of current Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and determine its trends over the RU-GASP (Russian Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility Programme) period.

Materials and Methods.

A total of 293 strains of N. gonorrhoeae isolated in 11 regions within Central, North-Western, Volga, Southern, and Siberian federal districts over the 2015–2016 were included in this study. Susceptibility to benzylpenicillin, ceftriaxone, tetracycline, spectinomycin, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method and assessed according to the CLSI, EUCAST and MUK 4.2.1890-04 criteria using the WHONET software (v5.4). The data from the RU-GASP 2015–2016 were compared to those from the RU-GASP 2005–2013.


The current N. gonorrhoeae strains in Russian Federation were found to be highly resistant to benzylpenicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin (46.8%, 51.9% and 33.1% of non-susceptible isolates, respectively). Over the RU-GASP program, there was a consistent tendency to gradual recovery of susceptibility to these antimicrobial agents. Non-susceptibility rates to azithromycin and spectinomycin have significantly decreased following peak values in the 2011 and are currently 6.5% and 1.0%, respectively. Over the RU-GASP period, susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone remained 100% with no emergence of resistance to this antibiotic.


Due to a high susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae strains to ceftriaxone, this antibiotic remains drug of choice in the treatment of gonococcal infection. Since the 2010, spectinomycin is recommended as an alternative treatment. In addition, the possible use of azithromycin could be reconsidered, if the current trend of susceptibility recovery remains. Because of their low activity against the majority of N. gonorrhoeae strains, benzylpenicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin are not recommended to use in the treatment of gonococcal infection in Russian Federation.

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