Incidence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Acute Otitis Media in Children 0–5 Years in Russia and Role of S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae in the Etiology of the Diseases

Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2013; 15(4):246-260

Journal article


To estimate the incidence of communityacquired pneumonias and acute otitis media and the role of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in these infections in children under 5 years.

Materials and Methods.

Investigational program PAPIRUS (Prospective Assessment of Pneumococcal Infection in RUSsia), which included multi-center prospective epidemiological study estimating the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the role of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in CAP and acute otitis media (AOM) in children 0-5 years of age in 3 Russian cities (Barnaul, Yekaterinburg and Murmansk) and the prospective multi-center observational cohort study evaluating the incidence of AOM in children under 5 years in the same cities had been performed during 12 months.


The incidence of CAP (according to the WHO definition) in the center was more than 530 cases per 100 000 of children under 5 years. The incidence of AOM (confirmed by otolaryngologist) was 27.2 cases per 100 children-years or 2.27 cases on 100 children-months.


The incidence of AOM and CAP in children under 5 years of age in Russia is a significant public health problem, and S. pneumoniae plays a leading role in the development of these diseases. Implementing modern conjugated pneumococcal vaccines into National Immunization Program will significantly reduce the incidence of the diseases.

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