Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2013; 15(3):173-183
The clinical significance of nocardioform bacteria isolated recently in a distinct genus Rhodococcus, as pathogens of infectious diseases in human also has not been sufficiently studied and specified. In the literature there are described a slightly more than 100 cases of disease in humans caused by the representatives of the genus Rhodococcus (lung abscesses, endophthalmitis, bacteriemia, etc). The peculiarity of the cases had background the presence of immunodeficiency state (often HIV-infection). This article describes a clinical case of severe pansinusitis and orbital cellulitis caused by Rhodococcus equi, as well as an overview of the available data on the clinical significance, diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of this pathogen.