Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2005; 7(4):337-349
The aim of the study was to determine the structure of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance in adult patients with acute maxillary sinusitis. A total of 311 strains isolated from 442 adult patients with acute maxillary sinusitis were included in the study during 2000–2003.
Clinically significant bacterial pathogens were isolated in 65.4% of patients; among them single microorganism were found in 87.3% of cases, >2 – in 12.7%. S. pneumoniae и H. influenzae were the most frequent isolates (47.0 and 23.8% of all strains, respectively). Third most frequent group of pathogens (12.9%) were non-group A β-hemolytic streptococci. Among 142 strains of S. pneumoniae no resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime and cefepime was found; 4.2% of strains were intermediately resistant to penicillin. The only 1.4% of pneumococci were non-susceptible to macrolides. All S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Among 67 strains of H. influenzae no resistance to cefuroxime was detected; rates of non-susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime and cefepime were 9.0%, 1.5%, 1.5% and 3.0%, respectively. Azithromycin and clarithromycin remain active against 98.5% and 92.5% strains of H. influenzae, respectively; no resistance to fluoroquinolones has been found.
Aminopenicillins, 3rd generation cephalosporins, respiratory fluoroquinolones and macrolides can be considered as the drugs for empiric therapy of acute sinusitis in adults. At the same time the use of tetracyclines and co-trimoxazole should be avoided because of high rates of resistance.