Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2000; 2(1):16-30
This review is devoted to the one of the actual problems of modern medicine - nosocomial infections (NI). Criteria, epidemiology, pathogenesis, origin, risk factors for the development of NI are listed. A special attentionis drawnto the economical burdenof NI onthe basis of data of controlled trials of the cost of therapy of patients with different NI. Phenotypes and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance are also described. Modern approaches to prophylaxis and control of NI are discussed with a special attention to the advantages and disadvantages of widely used methods. Data onstructure of NI, their specific features in multi-purpose hospitals depending on patient’ groups are indicated. Independent risk factors of development of different NI are reviewed. General principles of antimicrobial chemotherapy of NI are listed. The importance of multicenter studies of resistance of nosocomial pathogens in accordance with internationally recognised methodology is emphasised by the fact that the data from such studies of resistance provide not only epidemiological information, but could be used as a basis for development of recommendations for updating of hospital formularies of antimicrobials.