Antimicrobial resistance-associated mutations in chromosomal genes of ESKAPE pathogens

The worldwide successful expansion of ESKAPE pathogens is largely due to their ability to rapidly acquire high antimicrobial resistance levels. The bacterial resistome includes (1) plasmid-encoded genes acquired as a result of horizontal gene …

Adverse drug reactions of macrolide therapy: analysis of spontaneous reports according to the Pharmacovigilance system

Objective. To perform pharmacoepidemiological analysis of spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurred during macrolide group antibiotics prescription and registered in the “Pharmacovigilance 2.0” subsystem of the Federal Service for Surveillance in Healthcare. Materials and Methods. A retrospective pharmacoepidemiological analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs arising from the use of all macrolide and azalide antibiotics registered in Russia and registered in the electronic database of the “Pharmacovigilance 2.0” subsystem of the Federal Service for Surveillance in Healthcare for the period from 01.

Analysis of antibiotic prescriptions in patients with community-acquired pneumonia in clinical practice

Objective. To analyze new strategies for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) by age and assess treatment efficacy by age category based on real world data. Materials and Methods. A total of 612 patients (medical charts) with CAP treated in 3 hospitals during the 2017–2019 were included in the retrospective pharmacoepidemiological study. A retrospective analysis of antimicrobial therapy (AMT) administration in the treatment of CAP was performed. Results. Duration of hospital stay in CAP patients of young age was 10% shorter than in patients of any other age category.

Attitude to antibiotic therapy in dentists conducting therapeutic treatment of patients

Objective. To assess practicing dentists who treat patients conservatively attitude to antibiotic therapy in general, the degree of awareness of the rules for prescribing antibiotics, approaches to prescribing antibiotics for various dental diseases and therapeutic and preventive manipulations. Materials and Methods. The questionnaire was developed and an anonymous survey-questionnaire of 173 practical dentists conducting therapeutic reception of patients was carried out. The questionnaire included a list of diseases, therapeutic and prophylactic manipulations in which respondents consider the use of antibiotics indicated and questions to assess the respondents’ awareness of modern methods of antibiotic therapy and their views on the rules for prescribing antibiotics.

Probiotics: controversial issues

Recent studies have strongly confirmed the health benefits of a variety of probiotic microorganisms. However, some issues regarding the use of probiotics currently remain unresolved or ambiguous. This article highlights some controversial issues of …

Microbiological monitoring of COVID-19 patients in the ICU: a prospective observational study

Objective. To study spectrum of pathogens and the time to colonization of respiratory samples in patients with severe and critical COVID-19 as well as to analyze incidence of nosocomial infections and structure of prescribed antibacterial drugs. Materials and Methods. The prospective observational study included patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed severe and critical COVID-19 from December 2021 to February 2022. During the first 48 hours and then every 2–3 days of hospitalization, a respiratory sample was collected: sputum, tracheal aspirate (if intubated), bronchoalveolar lavage (if bronchoscopy was performed) for microscopy and microbiological examination.

Some issues of safety of antimicrobial therapy in COVID-19 patients

Currently, there is a lack of evidence for empiric use of antimicrobial agents in most patients with COVID-19 in outpatient and hospital settings as the overall proportion of secondary bacterial infections in COVID-19 is quite low. This literature …

Consumption of systemic antibiotics in the Russian Federation in 2017–2021

Objective. To assess level and the structure of systemic antibiotic consumption in Russia over the period 2017 to 2021. Materials and Methods. Data were collected and analysed in compliance with the standard protocol of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe by the means of ATC/DDD methodology for J01 group – antibacterials for systemic use. Consumption was calculated for outpatients and inpatients separately as a number of DDDs per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) for the main classes of antibiotics and the agents with the highest or the most diverse consumption levels for the given period of time, and was based on the data of wholesale purchases and public tenders.

Almost two years with COVID-19: some aspects of antibiotic use

The objective of this review was to summarize impact of the widespread administration of antibiotics in treatment algorithms for patients with COVID-19 on treatment outcomes. The experience of antimicrobial use agents during COVID-19 pandemic did not …

Antibiotics and community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. To whom? Which one?

This paper discusses an etiology, patient characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance surveillance data, as well as other factors which help to determine indications for administration and choice of antibiotics for the treatment of patients with …