Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2022; 24(4):345-360
Recent studies have strongly confirmed the health benefits of a variety of probiotic microorganisms. However, some issues regarding the use of probiotics currently remain unresolved or ambiguous. This article highlights some controversial issues of probiotic use in clinical practice such as regulatory status of probiotics, co-administration of probiotics and antibiotics, potential impact of probiotics on antimicrobial resistance emergence and spread, dosing and duration of probiotic use, contraindications and some other debatable topics.