Antimicrobial drug consumption in the Russian Federation (2008–2022): pharmacoepidemiological study | CMAC

Antimicrobial drug consumption in the Russian Federation (2008–2022): pharmacoepidemiological study

Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2023; 25(4):395-400

Original Article


To assess the dynamics of antimicrobial drug consumption in the Russian Federation.

Materials and Methods.

Data on antimicrobials for systemic use (ATC class J01) sales for the period 2008–2022 in the hospital and outpatient segment were downloaded from the IQVIA database. The absolute quantities of purchased antimicrobials were transferred to the defined daily doses (DDD) separately for the outpatient and hospital segments for each year of observation.


Over the period 2008-2022 there was an increase in antimicrobials consumption from 9.7 to 14.2 DDDs per 1000 inhabitants/day with a transient rise of up to 18.7 DDDs per 1000 inhabitants/day in 2020. In the outpatient segment, antimicrobials consumption was increased from 9.7 to 12.04 DDDs per 1000 population/day (a transient rise to 15.6 DDDs in 2020), and in the inpatient segment from 266.3 to 412.2 DDDs per 100 bed-days, respectively. When analyzing antimicrobials by access group (WHO classification AWaRe), there was a decrease in consumption «Access» group antimicrobials from 62% to 45%, an increase of «Watch» group antimicrobials from 38% to 63.4% and «Reserve» antimicrobials from 0.005% to 1.6%.


The increase in consumption of «Watch» group antimicrobials requires effective use control measures to be implemented at both outpatient and inpatient medical care settings at the national level.

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