Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2022; 24(3):226-235
Currently, there is a lack of evidence for empiric use of antimicrobial agents in most patients with COVID-19 in outpatient and hospital settings as the overall proportion of secondary bacterial infections in COVID-19 is quite low. This literature review summarizes data on changes in antimicrobial resistance over the course of COVID-19 pandemic, especially in nosocomial ESKAPE pathogens. The other significant consequences of excessive and unnecessary administration of antibiotics to COVID-19 patients including risk of Clostridioides difficile infection and adverse effects of antimicrobial agents are also discussed.