Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2022; 24(3):196-201
To assess the course and outcomes of COVID-19 in recipients of allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT).
The retrospective study included 44 adult recipients (allogeneic – 33 [75%] and autologous – 11 [25%] of HSCT who diagnosed with COVID-19 after transplantation. Group mostly represented by acute leukemia – 18 (41%) and lymphoma – 10 (22.7%). The median follow-up time since the development of COVID-19 was 231 days (1–818 days), after HSCT – 507.5 days (14–3723 days). Overall and progression-free survival was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier and Log-Rank method. We also evaluated the characteristics of the course of a new coronavirus infection.
Median time for the development of COVID-19 from the moment of HSCT was 122.5 days (-1–3490 days). Twelve patients (27.2%) were in grade 3–4 neutropenia at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis, 16 (36.4%) patients were in grade 1–2 neutropenia. Sixteen (48.4%) allo-HSCT recipients had active graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at the time of COVID-19 development. Disease severity was mild in 19 (43.2%) and moderate in 13 (29.5%) patients. Overall, 200-day survival from the onset of COVID-19 was 78.8% (95% CI [63.1–88.4]). Anemia (p = 0.02) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01) significantly decrease OS in patients with COVID-19 after HSCT. Patients with GVHD at the time of COVID-19 onset had a better survival rate (p = 0.02). The timing of COVID-19 development after HSCT did not affect outcomes.
The key points of the course of COVID-19 in HSCT recipients are the presence of cytopenia and graft-versus-host disease. Overall survival was 78.8%.