Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2022; 24(2):181-192
Development of local clinical protocols for antibacterial therapy of COVID-19-associated bacterial pneumonia in the therapeutic department of the city clinical hospital based on an analysis of the treatment process in patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia.
A retrospective analysis of 1382 cases of hospitalization in the therapeutic department of patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia for the period from 2020 to 2021 was carried out. The structure of etiotropic therapy, the frequency and timing of microbiological studies of the biomaterial, the manifestations of the main markers of bacterial infection during dynamic monitoring of clinical and laboratory parameters in patients prescribed antibiotic therapy, as well as statistics of the stay of patients in the therapeutic department of the hospital were assessed. Based on the results obtained in the course of microbiological studies, an assessment was made of the microbial landscape of the lower respiratory tract of patients with an analysis of the sensitivity of strains of the leading microflora to a wide range of antibiotics.
The study found that the dominant flora in COVID-19-associated pneumonia in hospitalized patients was gram-negative bacteria – K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii – their proportion was more than 50%. Among K. pneumoniae strains, 89.4% were ESBL producers, 63.5% of the strains were resistant to carbapenems, which with a high probability allows them to be considered carbapenemaseproducing strains. Among the strains of P. aeruginosa, the proportion of strains resistant to carbapenems and with a high degree of probability being strains – producers of carbapenemase was 41.1%. Among strains of Acinetobacter spp. these were 76.4%, and associated resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was also demonstrated. Gram-positive microorganisms were found in 34.3% of cases and were mainly represented by strains of S. aureus (74.9%), only 26.4% of strains of this pathogen were methicillin-resistant.
Microbiological monitoring conducted in 2020–2021 revealed the presence, among the pathogens of viral-bacterial pneumonia, at an early stage of hospitalization, a significant proportion of gram-negative bacteria with resistance of the MDR and XDR types. Based on the obtained microbiological data, starting empirical schemes for antibacterial therapy of secondary viral and bacterial pneumonia, which complicated the course of a new coronavirus infection COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, were developed and proposed.