Psychobiotics: a new way in psychopharmacology, or How do bacteria manage our brain?

Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2022; 24(2):108-133



Psychobiotics are a special class of probiotics that have a beneficial effect on human mental health. During the last decade, convincing evidence has emerged that the gut microbiome influences mental health, cognitive abilities (learning and memory), and behavioral processes through neurological, metabolic, hormonal, and immunological signaling pathways. This review provides available information on the mechanisms of regulation of neuroimmune axes by the microbiota, describes the schemes of interaction of the microbiota with the intestinal nervous system and the brain-gut axis, the effect on behavior, cognitive functions and emotions, and discusses the evidence base and current views on the use of psychobiotics as a safe and effective therapeutic alternative to classic psychotropic drugs in depressive and anxiety disorders, stress, autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and other conditions.

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