Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2019; 21(1):62-68
In order to study etiology and antimicrobial resistance rates in Gram-negative pathogens of nosocomial pneumonia, a total of 1410 isolates obtained from sputum in 75 ICU patients with nosocomial pneumonia in 2012 and 2017 was tested. The most common pathogens of nosocomial pneumonia in the both periods were aerobic Gram-negative microorganisms, such as P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae. There was a 2.8-fold increase in the proportion of K. pneumoniae in 2017. The study shows an increase in resistance rates among Gram-negative pathogens to the main antimicrobial classes. Compared to 2012, the proportion of meropenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae isolates was increased by 20.3%, 29.8%, and 74.3%, respectively. Particular attention is drawn to the appearance of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates resistant to all classes of the tested antibiotics. Of 38 sputum samples tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the GeneXpert analyzer, 20 (52.6%) samples were positive for carbapenemases VIM, NDM, OXA-48.