Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2014; 16(1):18-25
Antimicrobials for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) include different drug classes: fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, beta-lactam/betalactamase inhibitor combinations, aminoglycosides, carbapenems, nitrofurans, co-trimoxazole, and fosfomycin. Relative clinical variability (upper and lower UTI, severity, frequency of episodes, etc.), changing global and local antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens, new data on collateral damage of antibiotics, as well as characteristics and availability of antibiotics all make an appropriate choice difficult. This paper reviews criteria for antimicrobial choice in the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis based on the most recent international guidelines and country-specific factors.