Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2012; 14(4):268-275
This paper represents a review of currently available data on microbial communities and biofilms as an important clinical problem. Structure and morphology of microbial biofilm as well as stages and mechanisms of its formation, and genes and factors involved are described in detail. Available data on signal molecules (autoinducers) promoting «quorum sensing» phenomenon are provided. Known and suggested mechanisms of survival in bacterial biofilms, defense from the environmental factors and increased antimicrobial resistance are also considered. The focus is made on potential targets which may be used to compromise biofilm formation or cause biofilm destruction. Studies to investigate effects of macrolides and combinations with other antibiotics on microbial biofilms are presented.