Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Russia in 1999–2005: Results of Multicentre Prospective Studies PEHASus-I and PEHASus-II

Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2006; 8(1):33-47

Journal article


Objective: To assess the level, structure and phenotypes of antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in different regions of Russia and to evaluate their dynamics in period from 1999 to 2005.

Materials and Methods.

A total of 1704 S. pneumoniae from 23 cities of Central, North-Western, Southern, Privolgsk, Ural, Siberian and Far-Eastern regions of Russia were included into the study from 1999 to 2005. Susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials was determined by microdilution in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (CLSI/NCCLS).


β-Lactams retained high activity against S. pneumoniae: resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ceftriaxone/cefotaxime was 9.7%, 0.1%, 0%, 1.8% in 1999–2003 and 8.1%, 0.3%, 0.3%, and 2% in 2004–2005, respectively. Resistance to macrolides varied from 2.0% to 8.2% in 1999–2003 and from 4.3% to 6.6% in 2004–2005. Proportion of clindamycin-resistant isolates in above mentioned periods was 2.9% and 3.6%. Susceptibility to chloramphenicolvaried from 92.3% to 94.1%. Resistance to tetracycline was high during 1999–2005 (27.3–29.6%). Resistance to co-trimoxasole increased from 31.7% in 1999–2003 to 40.8% in 2004–2005 (р<0.0001). Vancomycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin retained high activity against S. pneumoniae. Proportion of multiresistant S. pneumoniae was 11.8% in 1999–2003 and 9.6% in 2004–2005.


β-Lactams (penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefotriaxone/cefotaxime), macrolides, lincosamides, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol and vancomycin were the most active against S. pneumoniae. High resistance to co-trimoxasole and tetracycline dictates the necessity to limit the use of these antimicrobials for the treatment of pneumococcal infections.

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