Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2005; 7(4):323-336
The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in nosocomial Enterobacteriaceae isolated in ICUs of various regions of Russia in 1997–1998 and 2003 was studied. We report the dramatic increase in the incidence of ESBLs, attributed mainly to the dissemination of the CTX-M-type β-lactamases. The results of in vitro susceptibility testing of ESBL producers indicate that the activity of non-β-lactam agents (amikacin and ciprofloxacin) significantly decreased during the time period of the study. Carbapenems and cefoperazone/sulbactam still remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of nosocomial infections caused by ESBL producers.