Diseases and Pathogens

The reasons why Klebsiella pneumoniae becomes a leading opportunistic pathogen

This review provides an analysis of causes why Klebsiella pneumoniae takes a leading place among opportunistic human bacteria. The review includes the history of K. pneumoniae studies, microbiological properties and various Klebsiella-associated …

The prevalence of circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes in people older than 18 years: healthy carriers, patients with acute otitis media, community-acquired pneumonia, and invasive pneumococcal infections (epidemiological study «SPECTRUM»)

Objective. To estimate the prevalence of S. pneumoniae serotypes in adults aged of 18 years and older, including healthy carriers and patients with acute otitis media (AOM), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and invasive pneumococcal infection (IPI). Materials and Methods. A total of 230 isolates of S. pneumoniae from 10 centers were included in the study from 01.06.2019 to 01.10.2019. Re-identification and typing using real-time PCR with 22 primer pairs were performed in the central laboratory (Institute of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Russia).

Listeriosis: genotyping as a key for identification a possible source of infection

Objective. To perform a comparative analysis of clinical and food isolates of Listeria monocytogenes collected in the European part of Russia in 2018–2019. Materials and Methods. We used multilocus sequencing (MLST), supplemented by virulence loci, including fragments of internalin genes (MvLST, Multi-virulent-locus sequence typing), followed by phylogenetic analysis. Results. The main diagnoses for clinical isolates were prenatal and neonatal listeriosis and meningitis. Clinical isolates predominantly belonged to phylogenetic line II with the predominance of ST7, which was also the most abundant in food isolates.

Development of vaccines against gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus and Zika virus

The success in preventing hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus infections by means of vaccination paves the way for the development of other vaccines to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, …

Species diversity and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. in nosocomial infections

Objective. To evaluate Staphylococcus species diversity and methicillin resistance in nosocomial infections. Materials and Methods. Staphylococci isolated from blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, post-operative wound exudates, urine and other samples were identified to species level with MALDITOF mass-spectrometry. Methicillin resistance was evaluated according to EUCAST guidelines. Results. A total of 3239 consecutive Staphylococcus strains isolated in a tertiary-care medical centre, accumulating patients from all Russian regions were identified in 2016–2017 as 1460 (45.

Gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions and antibiotic-associated diarrhea during antibiotic therapy in outpatient practice: prevention and treatment

Adverse drug reactions affecting gastrointestinal tract, quite often with the development of antibioticassociated diarrhea, are the most common undesirable effects of antibiotic therapy in outpatient practice. This review provides modern approaches …

Pharmacoepidemiology of peptic ulcer in Smolensk: 15 years later

Objective. To study management of patients with peptic ulcer based on outpatient card data and to evaluate changes in methods for diagnosis of H. pylori and treatment prescriptions compared with 2004– 2005. Materials and Methods. A total of 100 outpatient cards of patients aged 18 years and older who came to outpatient clinic visit for peptic ulcer over the period of 2015–2018 were analyzed. The results of this study were compared with the data from the pharmacoepidemiological study «Ulcer», which was performed in 2004–2005 in Smolensk.

Acute liver failure in adults

This article summarizes data on etiology, epidemiology and clinical presentation of acute liver failure. The review provides statistics on the incidence rates of acute liver failure in patients with different underlying diseases, describes the most …

Mucormycosis in children with hematological malignancies: results of a single-center study

Objective. To assess the incidence rate, risk factors and treatment outcomes of mucormycosis in children with hematological malignancies in the large tertiary hematology/oncology center. Materials and Methods. A total of 16 children (9 males/7 females) with mucormycosis were enrolled in a single-center, retrospective study over the period of 2012–2018. All patients had an underlying diagnosis of acute leukemia. Mucormycosis was diagnosed at the different timepoints after chemotherapy (CT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 15 cases and before CT in 1 case.

Antibiotics and community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. To whom? Which one?

This paper discusses an etiology, patient characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance surveillance data, as well as other factors which help to determine indications for administration and choice of antibiotics for the treatment of patients with …