Diseases and Pathogens

Species diversity and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. in nosocomial infections

Objective. To evaluate Staphylococcus species diversity and methicillin resistance in nosocomial infections. Materials and Methods. Staphylococci isolated from blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, post-operative wound exudates, urine and other samples were identified to species level with MALDITOF mass-spectrometry. Methicillin resistance was evaluated according to EUCAST guidelines. Results. A total of 3239 consecutive Staphylococcus strains isolated in a tertiary-care medical centre, accumulating patients from all Russian regions were identified in 2016–2017 as 1460 (45.

Gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions and antibiotic-associated diarrhea during antibiotic therapy in outpatient practice: prevention and treatment

Adverse drug reactions affecting gastrointestinal tract, quite often with the development of antibioticassociated diarrhea, are the most common undesirable effects of antibiotic therapy in outpatient practice. This review provides modern approaches …

Pharmacoepidemiology of peptic ulcer in Smolensk: 15 years later

Objective. To study management of patients with peptic ulcer based on outpatient card data and to evaluate changes in methods for diagnosis of H. pylori and treatment prescriptions compared with 2004– 2005. Materials and Methods. A total of 100 outpatient cards of patients aged 18 years and older who came to outpatient clinic visit for peptic ulcer over the period of 2015–2018 were analyzed. The results of this study were compared with the data from the pharmacoepidemiological study «Ulcer», which was performed in 2004–2005 in Smolensk.

Acute liver failure in adults

This article summarizes data on etiology, epidemiology and clinical presentation of acute liver failure. The review provides statistics on the incidence rates of acute liver failure in patients with different underlying diseases, describes the most …

Mucormycosis in children with hematological malignancies: results of a single-center study

Objective. To assess the incidence rate, risk factors and treatment outcomes of mucormycosis in children with hematological malignancies in the large tertiary hematology/oncology center. Materials and Methods. A total of 16 children (9 males/7 females) with mucormycosis were enrolled in a single-center, retrospective study over the period of 2012–2018. All patients had an underlying diagnosis of acute leukemia. Mucormycosis was diagnosed at the different timepoints after chemotherapy (CT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 15 cases and before CT in 1 case.

Antibiotics and community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. To whom? Which one?

This paper discusses an etiology, patient characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance surveillance data, as well as other factors which help to determine indications for administration and choice of antibiotics for the treatment of patients with …

Comparison of the qSOFA and NEWS scores and the SIRS criteria in predicting outcomes in emergency department patients with and without infection: results from a prospective observational study

Objective. To compare the Quick Sequential (Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) scores value in predicting poor outcomes in emergency department patients with/without infection in Russia. Materials and Methods. This prospective observational study included data from 270 patients, of whom 132 (48.8%) patients had an infection and 138 (51.2%) did not have an infection. Comparison of areas under the ROC-curves (Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve) for the qSOFA, NEWS and SIRS scores in predicting the composite outcome (death and/or length of intensive care unit stay >1 day) was performed.

Burden of resistant infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae in Russian Federation

The burden of bacterial resistance was assessed for the first time in Russia. The analysis was based on the results of bacteriological studies in multi-field hospitals provided by the St. Petersburg Medical Information and analytical Center. The …

Current approaches to prophylaxis and treatment of travelers’ diarrhea

Travelers’ diarrhea is the most common infectious disease in this subpopulation and usually develops within the first week of travel. This review presents summarized data on epidemiology and etiology of travelers’ diarrhea. Nonspecific precautions …

Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the history of one of the most successful nosocomial pathogens in Russian hospitals

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized as one of the six most important pathogens in terms of antimicrobial resistance («ESKAPE» pathogens), and included by WHO in the group of microorganisms for which the need for development of new antimicrobial …