Diseases and Pathogens

Official statements of the expert meeting on pneumococcal vaccination in adults in Russia

The purpose of the meeting is to obtain an opinion on approaches and recommendations for vaccine prevention of pneumococcal infections in adults.

Translocation of gut microbiota in liver cirrhosis: mechanisms, clinical significance, and markers

This article is an overview of the data on bacterial intestinal translocation. The article reviews changes in the intestinal microbiome, the local physiological barrier, as well as the innate and adaptive immunity characteristics contributing to the …

Cytomegalovirus after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: reactivation or reinfection?

Objective. To determine type of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (reactivation of a virus strain that was present before transplantation or re-infection with another virus strain) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients by sequencing. Materials and Methods. Clinical and laboratory data of 179 recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells collected from 2014 to 2018 were analyzed for CMV DNA in clinical specimens before and after transplantation. A total of 14 patients (28 samples) were included in the study.

The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes in adult population in Russia (epidemiological study «SPECTRUM»)

Objective. To estimate prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of circulated S. pneumoniae serotypes in adult population in different regions of the Russian Federation. Materials and Methods. A total of 500 isolates of S. pneumoniae obtained from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), sinusitis/acute otitis media (AOM) and healthy carriers from 29 centers were included in the study from 01 June 2019 to 15 January 2020. Re-identification, typing using real-time PCR with 27 primer pairs and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed in the central laboratory by standardized methods.

Regional spread of Candida auris

The geographical routes and time schedule of spread of C. auris – the fungus first identified in 2009 are discussed. Data on the increasing frequency of C. auris infections and rapid dissemination of the fungus from the regions of origin – southern …

New regimens and new medications in the treatment of tuberculosis: keeping step?

Rapid tests detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance which are universally implemented in medical practice has dramatically improved the diagnosis of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis and shortened turnaround time thus enabling early …

Ventilatorassociated lower respiratory tract infections: etiology and diagnosis

Objective. To review a literature published over the past 5 years and our own data on the etiology of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), antimicrobial resistance and its relationships between sepsis and choice of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Materials and Methods. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) criteria were used to diagnose LRTI. A review of the articles regarding LRTI from the Russian and international English language journals published over 6 years was performed.

COVID19 pandemic is a «pandemic» of antimicrobial therapy

The article presents a critical analysis of antibiotic usage tactics in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 existing in Russian and foreign healthcare, and discusses the possible causes of unjustified antibiotic aggression in this category of …

Investigation of a candidemia outbreak caused by C. parapsilosis in a pediatric hematology/oncology center

Objective. To investigate a candidemia outbreak caused by C. parapsilosis in a clinical unit of the Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology (NMRC PHOI). Materials and Methods. A total of 35 isolates of C. parapsilosis obtained from clinically significant specimens and swabs, including hands of nursing staff of the NMRS PHOI, over the 2018-2020 were genotyped in this retrospective study. Identification of C. parapsilosis isolates was performed by microbiological methods.

Pneumococcal vaccination in adult patients with comorbidities: a review of the clinical practice guidelines

The review discusses national clinical practice guidelines for pneumococcal vaccination in different countries, existing approaches to adult immunization, and highlights key results of the most significant clinical studies and metaanalyses on the …