Diseases and Pathogens

Unresolved issues of antibiotic therapy of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcal infections are widespread among outpatients and hospitalized patients. Despite the apparent diversity of the “menu” of anti-staphylococcal drugs, treatment results in several patients are not good as expected. This is due to the …

Biomarkers of infection in the optimization of antibacterial therapy: justified expectations

Despite the continuous improvement of approaches to antimicrobial therapy and the emergence of new highly effective antibiotics, severe bacterial infections being a significant cause of morbidity and mortality remain a top of mind issue for …

Treatment of COVID19 with antimalarial medicines: clinical pharmacology analysis

The COVID-19 epidemic caused by the human coronovirus has led to completely new challenges for clinical pharmacology, and the healthcare system as a whole. By the time the infection started, there was no effective and safe therapy. In this regard, at …

The genetic characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis causing invasive meningococcal infections in Smolensk region

Objective. To determine antigenic and genetic characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis isolated from the patients with invasive meningococcal infections in Smolensk region in comparison with those circulating in other regions. Materials and Methods. A total of 14 cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained in 2016–2019 and containing N. meningitidis DNA were tested using AmpliSens® Nm-ABCW kit, multilocus sequence typing and antigenic finetyping of outer membrane proteins. The results were analyzed by the BURST algorithm and other functionalities available at PubMLST.

Efficacy of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with COVID-19

Objective. To assess efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 57 patients with moderate and severe novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) receiving methylprednisolone pulse therapy (500 mg/day IV for 2–3 consecutive days) was performed. Pre- and post-therapy examination of the patients included clinical (severity and duration of fever, gas exchange parameters), imaging (computed tomography) and laboratory tests (including C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer).

The reasons why Klebsiella pneumoniae becomes a leading opportunistic pathogen

This review provides an analysis of causes why Klebsiella pneumoniae takes a leading place among opportunistic human bacteria. The review includes the history of K. pneumoniae studies, microbiological properties and various Klebsiella-associated …

The prevalence of circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes in people older than 18 years: healthy carriers, patients with acute otitis media, community-acquired pneumonia, and invasive pneumococcal infections (epidemiological study «SPECTRUM»)

Objective. To estimate the prevalence of S. pneumoniae serotypes in adults aged of 18 years and older, including healthy carriers and patients with acute otitis media (AOM), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and invasive pneumococcal infection (IPI). Materials and Methods. A total of 230 isolates of S. pneumoniae from 10 centers were included in the study from 01.06.2019 to 01.10.2019. Re-identification and typing using real-time PCR with 22 primer pairs were performed in the central laboratory (Institute of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Russia).

Listeriosis: genotyping as a key for identification a possible source of infection

Objective. To perform a comparative analysis of clinical and food isolates of Listeria monocytogenes collected in the European part of Russia in 2018–2019. Materials and Methods. We used multilocus sequencing (MLST), supplemented by virulence loci, including fragments of internalin genes (MvLST, Multi-virulent-locus sequence typing), followed by phylogenetic analysis. Results. The main diagnoses for clinical isolates were prenatal and neonatal listeriosis and meningitis. Clinical isolates predominantly belonged to phylogenetic line II with the predominance of ST7, which was also the most abundant in food isolates.

Development of vaccines against gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus and Zika virus

The success in preventing hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus infections by means of vaccination paves the way for the development of other vaccines to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, …

Species diversity and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. in nosocomial infections

Objective. To evaluate Staphylococcus species diversity and methicillin resistance in nosocomial infections. Materials and Methods. Staphylococci isolated from blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, post-operative wound exudates, urine and other samples were identified to species level with MALDITOF mass-spectrometry. Methicillin resistance was evaluated according to EUCAST guidelines. Results. A total of 3239 consecutive Staphylococcus strains isolated in a tertiary-care medical centre, accumulating patients from all Russian regions were identified in 2016–2017 as 1460 (45.