nosocomial infections

Carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and etiology of postoperative infectious complications in infants with congenital heart defects

Objective. To determine resistant microorganisms carriage, the frequency and etiology of postoperative infectious complications in high-risk infants with congenital heart defects (CHD). Materials and Methods. The retrospective analysis included 489 patients admitted for surgical treatment for CHD. The median age was 0.23 (0–12) months. Swabs were taken from the oropharynx and rectum for microbiological examination no later than 72 hours after admission (a total of 978 samples). The growth of resistant microorganisms (ESBL and/or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales, resistant non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria, MRSA and VRE) was recorded.

Genetic characteristics of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid of children

Objective. To assess antimicrobial susceptibility, presence of resistance genes and determine the phenotypic groups of K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid of children with nosocomial infections in intensive care units from 2014 to 2020. Materials and Methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were determined using the serial broth microdilution method. The identification of genes encoding the production of carbapenemases was carried out using hybridization fluorescence detection.

Management of antimicrobial resistance in a hospital: current state and future prospects

The analysis of the current state of antimicrobial resistance was performed and used as the basis for the implementation of modern tools of antimicrobial stewardship program in hospital practice. As a result, the structure of nosocomial pathogens and …

Use of chlorhexidine for the prophylaxis of nosocomial infections in ICU

This review summarizes published data on the use of chlorhexidine for the prevention of nosocomial infections in the intensive care units (ICU). The use of a 0.5–2.0% alcohol solution of chlorhexidine is strongly recommended for the surgical site …

Species diversity and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. in nosocomial infections

Objective. To evaluate Staphylococcus species diversity and methicillin resistance in nosocomial infections. Materials and Methods. Staphylococci isolated from blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, post-operative wound exudates, urine and other samples were identified to species level with MALDITOF mass-spectrometry. Methicillin resistance was evaluated according to EUCAST guidelines. Results. A total of 3239 consecutive Staphylococcus strains isolated in a tertiary-care medical centre, accumulating patients from all Russian regions were identified in 2016–2017 as 1460 (45.

Antimicrobial resistance, carbapenemase production, and genotypes of nosocomial Acinetobacter spp. isolates in Russia: results of multicenter epidemiological study ”MARATHON 2015–2016”

Objective. Objectives. To assess the rates of antibiotic resistance and production of acquired carbapenemases in nosocomial strains of Acinetobacter spp., and to determine the genotypes and prevalence of “international high-risk clones” among nosocomial strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in various regions of Russia within the “MARATHON 2015–2016” study. Materials and Methods. A total of 1005 non-duplicate nosocomial isolates of Acinetobacter spp., including 975 isolates of A. baumannii, collected in 44 hospitals from 25 cities in Russia in 2015– 2016 were studied.

Antimicrobial resistance, carbapenemase production, and genotypes of nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Russia: results of multicenter epidemiological study “MARATHON 2015–2016”

Objective. Objectives. To assess the rates of antibiotic resistance, production of acquired carbapenemases, genotypes and prevalence of «international high-risk clones» among nosocomial strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in various regions of Russia within the «MARATHON 2015–2016» study. Materials and Methods. A total of 1006 non-duplicate nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa collected in 44 hospitals from 25 cities in Russia in 2015–2016 were studied. Species identification of isolates was performed by means of MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry.

Antimicrobial resistance of nosocomial Enterobacterales isolates in Russia: results of multicenter epidemiological study “MARATHON 2015–2016”

Objective. To assess rates of antimicrobial resistance and production of the clinically important acquired resistance mechanisms (extended spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and carbapenemases) in nosocomial strains of Enterobacterales, and to determine genotypes and prevalence of “international high-risk clones” among carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in various Russian regions within the “MARATHON 2015–2016“ study. Materials and Methods. A total of 2786 non-duplicate nosocomial isolates of Enterobacterales, including 1316 isolates of K. pneumoniae and 837 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated in 49 hospitals from 25 cities in Russia in 2015–2016 were studied.

Antimicrobal resistance of nosocomial carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales in Russia: results of surveillance, 2014-2016

Objective. To assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE). Materials and Methods. A total of 5539 Enterobacterales isolates recovered from hospitalized patients in 52 medical institutions in 27 cities in Russia in 2014-2016 were tested. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using broth microdilution method according to ISO 20776-1:2006. Avibactam was tested in combinations with beta-lactams at fixed concentration of 4 mg/l. AST results were interpreted according to EUCAST v8.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the history of one of the most successful nosocomial pathogens in Russian hospitals

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized as one of the six most important pathogens in terms of antimicrobial resistance («ESKAPE» pathogens), and included by WHO in the group of microorganisms for which the need for development of new antimicrobial …