community-acquired pneumonia | CMAC

community-acquired pneumonia

Differential diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and viral lung injury in hospitalized adults

Objective. Identification of clinical, laboratory, and instrumental factors more common in bacterial pneumonia compared to viral pneumonia, including COVID-19. Materials and Methods. This retrospective case-control study included hospitalized adults with communityacquired bacterial pneumonia and viral lung injury, including COVID-19. Patients were included taking into account age, gender, hospitalization department (general ward or ICU), and Charlson comorbidity index. Clinical, demographic, laboratory, and instrumental data on admission were studied. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated using univariate logistic regression (for quantitative indicators) and contingency table analysis (for categorical indicators); adjusted OR were calculated using multivariate logistic regression.

Cefodizime: pharmacological characteristics and potential for clinical use in lower respiratory tract infections

Cefodizime is a third–generation cephalosporin for parenteral use that has become available for the first time in the Russia. This paper reviews the use of this antibiotic in clinical practice based on the current data on antimicrobial resistance in …

Analysis of antibiotic prescriptions in patients with community-acquired pneumonia in clinical practice

Objective. To analyze new strategies for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) by age and assess treatment efficacy by age category based on real world data. Materials and Methods. A total of 612 patients (medical charts) with CAP treated in 3 hospitals during the 2017–2019 were included in the retrospective pharmacoepidemiological study. A retrospective analysis of antimicrobial therapy (AMT) administration in the treatment of CAP was performed. Results. Duration of hospital stay in CAP patients of young age was 10% shorter than in patients of any other age category.

Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia and prevalence of comorbidities in elderly patient population

Objective. To investigate the mortality rate, comorbidity prevalence, and etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in elderly patient population. Materials and Methods. Hospitalized elderly patients with CAP were distributed into the following age groups: 65–74 years (group I), 75–84 years (group II) and 85–94 years (group III). The patients’ medical records were used for determining comorbidities and mortality rate. In order to determine etiology of CAP, sputum or BAL samples were collected.

Potential for the use of macrolides in the antimicrobial therapy of severe community-acquired pneumonia in adults

This paper presents mechanism of action and antimicrobial spectrum of macrolides as well as the known acquired resistance mechanisms in the common pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma …

Safety and efficacy of nemonoxacin versus levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: results of phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority trial

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a step-down strategy from intravenous to oral nemonoxacin versus a step-down strategy from intravenous to oral levofloxacin in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Materials and Methods. This was a phase III randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel groups (2 groups), multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous and oral nemonoxacin at a daily dose of 500 mg versus levofloxacin (Tavanic®) at a daily dose of 500 mg in the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in the military personnel

Objective. To assess the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the army recruits using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Materials and Methods. Sputum, blood, bronchoalveolar lavage samples and oropharyngeal swabs collected from 255 hospitalized army recruits with radiographically confirmed diagnosis of CAP were tested by PCR assay. The comparator group included 270 otherwise healthy recruits. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzaе, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, Legionella pneumophila, adenoviruses, Herpes simplex virus I/II, cytomegalovirus was performed by PCR using commercial AmpliSens kits and GenPak DNA PCR test.

Clinico-Economic Effectiveness of Ceftaroline Fosamil for the Treatment of Hospitalised Patients with Pneumococcal Community-Acquired Pneumonia from a Societal Perspective

Objective. Due to high activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae ceftaroline fosamil (CF) presents a good option for the treatment of adults with pneumococcal communityacquired pneumonia (PCAP) requiring parenteral antibacterial therapy. We aimed to assess cost-effectiveness of CF for the treatment of PCAP in a multi-field hospital in Russia from a societal perspective. Materials and Methods. Decision tree model based on the results of two 3rd phase clinical trials (FOCUS 1, FOCUS 2) was created to represent a standard approach to the management of hospitalised patients with PCAP and estimated outcomes including possible recurrence of infection, direct and delayed attributive mortality in case of initial therapy with CF 600 mg BID vs.

Incidence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Acute Otitis Media in Children 0–5 Years in Russia and Role of S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae in the Etiology of the Diseases

Objective. To estimate the incidence of communityacquired pneumonias and acute otitis media and the role of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in these infections in children under 5 years. Materials and Methods. Investigational program PAPIRUS (Prospective Assessment of Pneumococcal Infection in RUSsia), which included multi-center prospective epidemiological study estimating the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the role of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in CAP and acute otitis media (AOM) in children 0-5 years of age in 3 Russian cities (Barnaul, Yekaterinburg and Murmansk) and the prospective multi-center observational cohort study evaluating the incidence of AOM in children under 5 years in the same cities had been performed during 12 months.

Short Courses of Antimicrobial Therapy: a New Treatment Paradigm for Community-Acquired Pneumonia?

Over the last years, short treatment courses for different infections, including respiratory tract infections, are increasingly more discussed. This therapeutic approach has some clear benefits: improved compliance, less frequent adverse drug …