Consumption of systemic antibiotics in the Russian Federation in 2017–2021

Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2022; 24(3):220-225

Original Article


To assess level and the structure of systemic antibiotic consumption in Russia over the period 2017 to 2021.

Materials and Methods.

Data were collected and analysed in compliance with the standard protocol of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe by the means of ATC/DDD methodology for J01 group – antibacterials for systemic use. Consumption was calculated for outpatients and inpatients separately as a number of DDDs per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) for the main classes of antibiotics and the agents with the highest or the most diverse consumption levels for the given period of time, and was based on the data of wholesale purchases and public tenders.


Antibiotic consumption in Russia in 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021 was 16.6 DID, 14.3 DID, 14.8 DID, 19 DID, and 15.7 DID respectively. Penicillins, macrolides and lincosamides, and quinolones had the highest levels of consumption in outpatients. Prominent increase in outpatient consumption of antibacterials in 2020 was related to three agents: azithromycin, levofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Cephalosporins (mainly III–V generations), quinolones and penicillins had the highest levels of consumption in inpatients. Hospital consumption of meropenem, tigecycline, and vancomycin increased and amikacin and ciprofloxacin decreased over the duration of the study.


Levels of systemic antibiotic consumption in Russia for the period 2017 to 2019 were relatively low and consistent with the average means for European Union and European Economic Area countries. The steep increase in consumption in 2020 was probably due to the wide use of antibiotics for the management of COVID-19 patients. The results of the study can be of value for the development of targeted national antibiotic stewardship programs and awareness campaigns as well as for the analysis of trends of emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.

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