Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2009; 11(2):143-151
Respiratory tract infections are the most common human infectious diseases. These infections may cause serious complications and cause tremendous economic losses. Therefore the adequate treatment of different types of respiratory infections, consideration regarding the need for antimicrobial therapy and the rational choice of antibiotics highly active against the presumptive pathogens are of extreme importance. During the last years increasingly more data arise, which fairly change the traditional conceptions regarding etiology and pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections. This new knowledge includes the discovery of some previously unknown characteristics in universally recognized pathogens and also the reappraisal of the role of atypical pathogens in acute respiratory infections, various respiratory tract disorders. Authors of the present review made an attempt to summarize the presently available data supporting new views regarding different aspects of etiology and pathogenesis and contemporary approaches to antimicrobial therapy of respiratory tract infections.