Personal Experience | CMAC

Personal Experience

The role of personalized medicine in evaluating the effectiveness of leprosy treatment

Objective. To develop the method for determining the viability of M. leprae using polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Materials and Methods. 54 scarifications and 10 biopsies of the skin of patients with leprosy were studied. Ribosomal 16S rRNA genes were used as a target. Results. The high sensitivity and specificity of the developed real-time reverse transcription PCR method was established. M. leprae were detected on average 2 times more often by RT-PCR compared with the bacterioscopy method both before treatment and after its six-month course (p < 0.

Antimicrobial resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from patients with tuberculous spondylitis

Objective. To conduct a comparative evaluation of the results of phenotypic and molecular genetic methods for testing drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from bone biopsies of patients with tuberculous spondylitis. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the case histories of patients diagnosed with tuberculous spondylitis who underwent surgical treatment in the period from 2016 to 2021. The main study subject was surgical material. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of MBT isolates was performed using phenotypic and molecular genetic methods.

Significance of herpesvirus infections in the etiology of bronchopulmonary complications in patients undergoing heart transplantation

Objective. To study significance of herpesviruses in the development of infectious complications in patients after heart transplantation based on the detection of markers of herpesvirus infections. Materials and Methods. The paper presents the results of a comprehensive examination for markers (HVI) of patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation at the V.I. Shumakov National Medical Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs (Moscow). A total of 86 patients were observed. To establish the etiological diagnosis of infectious complications, all the blood serum and blood cell samples were analyzed for markers of herpesvirus infections.

Experience with the use of an automated system for diagnosis of urinar y tract infections

Objective. To compare results of microbiological examination obtained on rapid automated system with semiquantitative plate culture to assess possibility and necessity of using the system in urine examination. Materials and Methods. The study included 231 urine samples collected from February to July 2023 from patients at Lomonosov Moscow State University Medical Research and Educational Center. The samples were cultured according to the standards of urine microbiological examination using chromogenic media and using an automatic HB&L system (Alifax, Italy) for 4 h.

Antimicrobial therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations in a multidisciplinary hospital

Objective. To study the real practice of management of patients with COPD exacerbations on the example of a single hospital. Materials and Methods. During the retrospective descriptive study the data of medical records of 219 patients with COPD were processed, the profile of the studied patients with distribution by phenotypes and determination of the Charlson comorbidity index was compiled and analyzed. StatPlus 7.0 program was used for statistical analysis.

Candida spp. peritonitis (clinical cases, register analysis and literature review)

We present a case of fungal peritonitis in a patient secondary to intestinal perforation and repeated laparotomy. An analysis of data from the register of patients with invasive candidiasis is also presented. In the study were included 42 patients …

Rapid syndromic approach to diagnosis of bacteremia – results of the first experience

Objective. To describe results of the first experience of using a syndromic approach to the diagnosis of bacteremia using multiplex panels for real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). Materials and Methods. The prospective study included 10 consecutive positive blood cultures obtained from 10 patients in the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. Hemocultures were carried out in BacT/ ALERT FA Plus vials using a BacT/ALERT 3D 120 incubator (bioMérieux, France).

Differential diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and viral lung injury in hospitalized adults

Objective. Identification of clinical, laboratory, and instrumental factors more common in bacterial pneumonia compared to viral pneumonia, including COVID-19. Materials and Methods. This retrospective case-control study included hospitalized adults with communityacquired bacterial pneumonia and viral lung injury, including COVID-19. Patients were included taking into account age, gender, hospitalization department (general ward or ICU), and Charlson comorbidity index. Clinical, demographic, laboratory, and instrumental data on admission were studied. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated using univariate logistic regression (for quantitative indicators) and contingency table analysis (for categorical indicators); adjusted OR were calculated using multivariate logistic regression.

Distribution of MIC values of antibacterial drugs for Flavobacteriales isolated from respiratory samples in Russian patients with cystic fibrosis

Objective. Analysis of the distribution of the values of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of a number of antibacterial drugs in relation to representatives of the order Flavobacteriales isolated from respiratory samples from patients with cystic fibrosis of the Russian Federation by the method of double serial dilutions. Materials and Methods. The distribution of the values of MIC of a number of antibacterial drugs was evaluated in relation to 100 strains of bacteria, representatives of the order Flavobacteriales, isolated from respiratory samples from patients with cystic fibrosis from 60 regions of the Russian Federation as part of a routine microbiological examination.

Carriage of K. pneumoniae and molecular structure of produced carbapenemases in infants with congenital heart defects

Objective. To evaluate frequency of pharyngeal and rectal mucosa colonization by K. pneumoniae strains in infants with congenital heart defects at the stage of cardiosurgical hospital admission, as well as dynamic analysis of production frequency and molecular structure of K. pneumoniae carbapenemases. Materials and Methods. A total of 1445 patients with risk factors (antibiotic therapy in the anamnesis, emergency hospitalization, transfer from other hospitals) admitted for surgical treatment of congenital heart defects (CHDs) between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2022 were included in the retrospective analysis.