Antimicrobial Resistance

Distribution of antimicrobial resistance among clinical and food Listeria monocytogenes isolated in Moscow in 2019–2021

Objective. To determine the current state-of-art of acquired resistance to antimicrobial drugs among L. monocytogenes strains associated with listeriosis in humans and food contamination in Moscow. Materials and Methods. We used 39 L. monocytogenes strains isolated in Moscow in 2019–2021 from clinical material (n = 24) and food (n = 15). Resistance to 12 antibiotics of the first and second lines of defense was studied using disk-diffusion method. The parameters recommended for L.

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex mycobacteria isolated from patients in Ural Federal District of the Russian Federation

Objective. To assess minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobials for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) mycobacteria isolated from patients in Ural Federal District of the Russian Federation. Materials and Methods. We determined MICs for 33 M. avium and 34 M. intracellulare strains isolated from 67 patients with mycobacteriosis or tuberculosis/mycobacteriosis co-infection during 2018– 2019. SLOMYCO Sensititre test-system was used for susceptibility testing to 12 antibiotics: amikacin, streptomycin, clarithromycin, ethambutol, rifabutin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, ethionamide, isoniazid, linezolid, moxifloxacin, and doxycycline.

Monitoring of macrolide resistanceassociated mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in Russia

Objective. To determine spectrum and prevalence of genetic determinants of resistance to macrolides in Mycoplasma genitalium in a Russian patient population. Materials and Methods. A total of 873 M. genitalium-positive samples from five geographical regions of Russia were investigated over the period of 2009–2019 using the previously developed protocol of real-time polymerase chain reaction (allows detecting any nucleotide substitutions in the 23S rRNA gene of M. genitalium at positions 2058, 2059, and 2611).

Monitoring of resistanceassociated mutations in UL97 gene of cytomegalovirus in children after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Objective. To perform genotyping of cytomegalovirus (CMV) phosphotransferase UL97 and investigate mutations associated with ganciclovir/valganciclovir (GCV/VGCV) resistance in children after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with confirmed CMV infection. Materials and Methods. This single-center prospective study was conducted from January 2020 to December 2021 and enrolled allogeneic HSCT recipients under 18 years of age with confirmed CMV infection. In case of possible GCV resistance, molecular genotyping with Sanger sequencing was performed.

Experience in implementing the AMRcloud online platform for local antimicrobial resistance surveillance in a tertiary care hospital

Objective. To create local antibiotic resistance surveillance system using the AMRcloud online platform to provide evidence base for activity of antimicrobials (AM) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) epidemiology. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted at the Pirogov National Medical and Surgical Center (Moscow, Russia). The study is prospective, with two evaluations of the local AMR surveillance system (before and after the implementation of the AMRcloud online platform). Separately, the effects of implementing the AMRcloud platform were evaluated and the most frequent scenarios of using this system in hospital were studied.

Practice of local antibiotic resistance monitoring at hospitals in various regions of the Russian Federation

Objective. To analyze the features of local antibiotic resistance monitoring at hospitals in the Russian Federation. Materials and Methods. The study involved a survey of 305 institutions. The duration of data collection was 1 year (March 2020 – April 2021). The responses received were analyzed using the «R» programming language. Special packages were used for data processing and calculation of confidence intervals. Results were assessed by descriptive analysis with calculation of absolute and relative frequencies, and 95% confidence intervals according to the Wilson method.

Genetic characteristics of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid of children

Objective. To assess antimicrobial susceptibility, presence of resistance genes and determine the phenotypic groups of K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid of children with nosocomial infections in intensive care units from 2014 to 2020. Materials and Methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were determined using the serial broth microdilution method. The identification of genes encoding the production of carbapenemases was carried out using hybridization fluorescence detection.

The current view on betalactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

The review presents the current view on the different resistance mechanisms of Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams, which are ones of the main antibiotics of choice for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. Currently, there are several …

Genetic diversity of vancomycinresistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from blood culture in patients with hematological malignancies

Objective. To study the genetic diversity of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VR-E. faecium) isolated from the blood culture in patients with hematological malignancies by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Materials and Methods. VR-E. faecium isolated from the blood culture in hematological patients in 6 hospitals of 4 Russian cities (2003–2019) were evaluated. Susceptibility to vancomycin was tested by the broth microdilution method (CLSI, 2018). Vancomycin-resistance genes (vanA, vanB) were identified by polymerase chain reaction.

Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial therapy modification during COVID19 pandemic in large tertiary hospital

Objective. assessment of the evolution of the microbiological landscape of the hospital for the period of operation in 2020 into a pandemic of a new coronavirus infection in various departments, including intensive care units; change depending on the results of antibacterial therapy regimens. Materials and Methods. In a retrospective study, conducted from June to December 2020, in a multidisciplinary hospital working with COVID-19 infection, the resistance of isolated strains of microorganisms was analyzed in patients of different age groups.