Antimicrobial Resistance

AMRexpert – online platform for interpretation, verification and validation of antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Objective. To review the key principles and functionality of AMRexpert online platform. Materials and Methods. The information part of the platform is comprised of rules based on the EUCAST recommendations and various standards for interpreting the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST, CLSI versions 2020-2022). The technical part of the platform was developed using C# programming language, Angular and Bootstrap frameworks. AST results of Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecium specific isolates were analyzed for practical testing of the platform using EUCAST v.

Epidemiology and impact of colonization by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria on bloodstream infections in early phase of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Objective. To study epidemiology and impact of colonization by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) on bloodstream infections (BSI) during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Materials and Methods. The retrospective study included 288 patients received the first allo-HSCT between 2018 and 2019. The median age was 32 (18–66) years, male – 53% (n = 152). The majority of patients had acute leukemia – 62% (n = 178) and received transplant from matched unrelated – 42% (n = 120) or haploidentical donor – 26% (n = 75).

Prevalence of the A2058G mutation in 23S rRNA gene, which determines Treponema pallidum macrolide resistance in Russian population

Objective. To investigate prevalence of the A2058G mutation in the Russian population of T. pallidum and its association with molecular subtypes. Materials and Methods. We analyzed DNA isolated from 325 samples of clinical material obtained from patients of dermatovenereological treatment and prophylactic institutions in 6 federal districts of the Russia in the period from 2014 to 2021. Patients were diagnosed with primary syphilis of the genital organs, primary syphilis of other sites, or secondary syphilis of the skin and mucous membranes.

Analysis of the genes encoding the MBL-fold metallohydrolase superfamily proteins of the Pseudomonas putida BS3701 petroleum component-degrading strain

Objective. To determine whether the genes whose products are annotated as «MBL-fold metallohydrolase superfamily» are related to the proteins of the metallo-β-lactamase group. Materials and Methods. Sequences of the 7 genes annotated as «MBL-fold metallohydrolase superfamily» were analyzed using the following resources: ClustalW, IQ-TREE, iTOL. Selection of the oligonucleotides for real-time PCR was performed using the Primer-BLAST resource. The level of gene expression was assessed using real-time PCR. MIC and MBC measuring was performed using cefepime and meropenem.

The prevalence and characterization of ESBL-producing strains of Salmonella enterica circulating in the territory of the Russian Federation (2016–2020)

Objective. To analyze frequency and identify genetic determinants of resistance of non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) isolated in the Russian Federation over the period 2016 to 2020. Materials and Methods. Salmonella isolates, suspected to ESBL production, were collected by the All-Russia Reference Center of Salmonellosis during the national Salmonellosis surveillance program. Phenotypic resistance was determined by the broth microdilution method using G-I and G-II Mikrolatest®SensiLaTest MIC plates and by the double-disk synergy test.

Distribution of antimicrobial resistance among clinical and food Listeria monocytogenes isolated in Moscow in 2019–2021

Objective. To determine the current state-of-art of acquired resistance to antimicrobial drugs among L. monocytogenes strains associated with listeriosis in humans and food contamination in Moscow. Materials and Methods. We used 39 L. monocytogenes strains isolated in Moscow in 2019–2021 from clinical material (n = 24) and food (n = 15). Resistance to 12 antibiotics of the first and second lines of defense was studied using disk-diffusion method. The parameters recommended for L.

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex mycobacteria isolated from patients in Ural Federal District of the Russian Federation

Objective. To assess minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobials for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) mycobacteria isolated from patients in Ural Federal District of the Russian Federation. Materials and Methods. We determined MICs for 33 M. avium and 34 M. intracellulare strains isolated from 67 patients with mycobacteriosis or tuberculosis/mycobacteriosis co-infection during 2018– 2019. SLOMYCO Sensititre test-system was used for susceptibility testing to 12 antibiotics: amikacin, streptomycin, clarithromycin, ethambutol, rifabutin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, ethionamide, isoniazid, linezolid, moxifloxacin, and doxycycline.

Monitoring of macrolide resistanceassociated mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in Russia

Objective. To determine spectrum and prevalence of genetic determinants of resistance to macrolides in Mycoplasma genitalium in a Russian patient population. Materials and Methods. A total of 873 M. genitalium-positive samples from five geographical regions of Russia were investigated over the period of 2009–2019 using the previously developed protocol of real-time polymerase chain reaction (allows detecting any nucleotide substitutions in the 23S rRNA gene of M. genitalium at positions 2058, 2059, and 2611).

Monitoring of resistanceassociated mutations in UL97 gene of cytomegalovirus in children after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Objective. To perform genotyping of cytomegalovirus (CMV) phosphotransferase UL97 and investigate mutations associated with ganciclovir/valganciclovir (GCV/VGCV) resistance in children after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with confirmed CMV infection. Materials and Methods. This single-center prospective study was conducted from January 2020 to December 2021 and enrolled allogeneic HSCT recipients under 18 years of age with confirmed CMV infection. In case of possible GCV resistance, molecular genotyping with Sanger sequencing was performed.

Experience in implementing the AMRcloud online platform for local antimicrobial resistance surveillance in a tertiary care hospital

Objective. To create local antibiotic resistance surveillance system using the AMRcloud online platform to provide evidence base for activity of antimicrobials (AM) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) epidemiology. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted at the Pirogov National Medical and Surgical Center (Moscow, Russia). The study is prospective, with two evaluations of the local AMR surveillance system (before and after the implementation of the AMRcloud online platform). Separately, the effects of implementing the AMRcloud platform were evaluated and the most frequent scenarios of using this system in hospital were studied.