Antimicrobial Resistance

AMRmap – antibiotic resistance surveillance system in Russia

Objective. To review the basic principles and functionality of the AMRmap online resource. Materials and Methods. The AMRmap platform was developed using the R programming language and various downloadable modules – packages. The current annually updated version of EUCAST clinical breakpoints was applied for determination of categories of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Descriptive analysis includes calculation of absolute and relative frequencies, median values, and confidence intervals using the Wilson method.

Molecular epidemiology of mcr gene group

Colistin and polymyxin B are the “last reserve” antimicrobials for the treatment of extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. The rapidly increasing prevalence of polymyxin resistance mediated by the mcr gene localized on plasmid …

Management of antimicrobial resistance in a hospital: current state and future prospects

The analysis of the current state of antimicrobial resistance was performed and used as the basis for the implementation of modern tools of antimicrobial stewardship program in hospital practice. As a result, the structure of nosocomial pathogens and …

Antimicrobial resistance of staphylococci in pediatric hospitals

Objective. To determine frequency of Staphylococcus isolation and antimicrobial resistance in hospitalized children with different types of infections. Materials and Methods. Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in staphylococci were performed on a WalkAway 96 analyzer using Pos Combo type 20 tablets, and mecA gene detection was performed on a RotorGene 6000 amplifier with a set of AmpliSens MRSA-screen FL. Results. A total of 876 strains of staphylococci isolated in children’s hospitals were tested.

Antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients in Rostov region

Objective. To evaluate resistance rates to carbapenems and III–IV generation cephalosporins among gramnegative bacteria, including production of carbapenemases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Materials and Methods. A total of 460 gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients aged 1 to 85 years from 8 medical institutions of Rostov-on-Don and the region from April 2018 to December 2019 were tested by conventional microbiological methods. The most common acquired carbapenemases genes were determined by real-time PCR using commercial kits (Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Russia).

Data handling as a basis for local antimicrobial resistance surveillance

Continuing trends of antimicrobial resistance growth require a set of countermeasures, of which antimicrobial resistance surveillance at the global, national, and local levels plays one of the most important roles. Local surveillance systems are the …

Experience with the AMRcloud online platform for antimicrobial resistance surveillance in zoonotic bacteria

Objective. To develop an approach to comprehensive analysis and presentation of data on antibiotic resistance of zoonotic bacteria to minimize antibiotic resistance in the medical and veterinary fields using the AMRcloud platform. Materials and Methods. Isolates of E. coli, Salmonella spp., Enterococcus spp. and Campylobacter spp. were taken from farm animals, food and feed. AST was performed by broth microdilution method. Genes of resistance were detected by whole-genome sequencing or PCR.

Resistance of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients with orthopedic infection

Objective. To evaluate the resistance rate and production of carbapenemases in Klebsiella pneumoniae with phenotypic resistance to carbapenems isolated from patients with orthopedic infection. Materials and Methods. The materials for the study were tissue samples, aspirates and removed orthopedic devices of patients with orthopedic infection at the Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, between 2017 and 2019. K. pneumoniae strains were identified in Microlatest by iEMS ReaderMF. These strains were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents by disk diffusion methods, as described by the EUCAST.

Antimicrobial resistance of clinical Streptococcus pyogenes isolates in Russia: the results of multicenter epidemiological study «PEHASus 2014–2017»

Objective. To evaluate antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinical Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from different regions of Russia during 2014–2017. Materials and Methods. A total of 792 clinical S. pyogenes isolates from 14 Russian cities were included in the study. Susceptibility testing was performed using reference broth microdilution method (ISO 207761:2006). Susceptibility testing results were interpreted using EUCAST v.10.0 breakpoints. Results. Penicillin G was active against all tested isolates with the MIC50–90 values of 0.

The rates of mutations associated with macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium among patients with non-gonococcal sexually transmitted infections in Smolensk and Tula

Objective. In this study, we examined the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium in two Russian cities, Smolensk and Tula, between 2013 and 2017. Materials and Methods. DNA’s samples were isolated from urethral and cervicovaginal swabs using primary screening and tested for macrolide resistance-associated mutations by real-time PCR. This technology makes it possible to identify any nucleotide substitutions in the 23S rRNA M. genitalium gene at positions 2058, 2059, 2611 M.