Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2001; 3(2):163-182
There is increasing recognition of a widening array of enteric patogens associated with illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract. Along with well-known microorganisms – Salmonella, Shigella and rotaviruses, agents such as enterohemorrhagic E.coli, Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium difficile, caliciviruses and other enteric virus patogens are increasing cause of acute diarrheal illnesses. Critical to development a cost-effective approach to the evaluation and management of infectious diarrhea is the selective use of available diagnostic methods, therapies, and preventive measures. This article reviews the recommendations that address following: oral rehydration, clinical and epidemiological evaluation, perfomance of selective fecal studies, administration of selective antimicrobial therapy, contradicted antidiarrheals, and available immunizations. This document indicates, which patients to test, what tests are more effective, what medical treatment to use, and what steps to take to ensure that appropriate public health actions are implemented.